Aim: The objective of this research was to determine the abrasive and remineralising efficacy of quail eggshell (Coturnix coturnix) incorporated into a new experimental toothpaste. Methods: An experimental study was designed to compare the surface microhardness of the dental enamel of bovine lateral incisors exposed to different toothpastes. In relation to microroughness (abrasive efficiency), the unit of analysis was each specimen with 16 polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blocks. For the remineralisation variable, the unit of analysis was each bovine lateral incisor tooth. A sample size of 16 was determined for each group. Results: The unpolished PMMA specimens presented the highest mean surface microroughness with a mean of 4.60 ± 1.47 µm, whilst the quail paste, universal polishing paste, control paste, and Diamond Excel Paste showed a mean of 1.16 ± 0.40 µm, 0.63 ± 024 µm, 0.45 ± 0.22 µm, and 0.43 ± 0.17 µm, respectively, presenting significant differences (P < .001). When comparing the surface microhardness of bovine lateral incisor dental enamel exposed to different toothpastes, the universal polishing paste presented the lowest microhardness, with 192.43 ± 56.21 kg/mm2, whilst the quail paste presented the greatest remineralising effect, with the highest average of 272 ± 21.18 kg/mm2, followed by the control paste with 244 ± 41.43 kg/mm2 and the Diamond Excel Paste with 228.72 ± 43.72 kg/mm2. These differences were statistically significant (P < .001). Conclusions: Significant differences were found in the surface abrasive efficiency (microroughness) of PMMA subjected to different toothpastes. The quail toothpaste presented statistically significant results compared to the control pastes, the Diamond Excel Paste, and the universal polishing paste.