Introduction: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide. Peru has few reports describing the national and regional epidemiology of thyroid cancer. Objective: The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide. Peru has few reports describing the national and regional epidemiology of thyroid cancer. Methods: A descriptive study of trends was conducted with secondary data obtained from a public information source in Peru. The ICD 10: C73.0 coding record was evaluated, by age group, year and region. The age-standardized prevalence (period 2005 to 2016) and mortality (period 2005 to 2015) were calculated by region and year of study. Results: In the 2005-2016 period, 19 513 cases of thyroid cancer were recorded. The age group with the highest frequency was 30 to 59 years (57.7%). The prevalence increased from 4.7 to 15.2 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in the period 2005-2016, with the coastal region showing the greatest increase. Likewise, 1596 deaths from thyroid cancer (period 2005 to 2015) were recorded, more frequently in those older than 60 years (75.5%). The age-standardized mortality rate increased from 0.67 in 2005 to 0.72 in 2015, being the highlands the one with the greatest increase. Conclusions: The prevalence of thyroid cancer increased and mortality remained constant in the period studied. These results suggest exploring social and population factors that may have influenced these results. Likewise, population records of this and other neoplasms in Peru should be improved.