AIM: The aim of this study was to identify demographic and clinical risk factors for mortality in patients with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated vasculitides (AAVs) in a Peruvian tertiary referral hospital.
METHODS: Medical records of patients with AAV according to classification criteria or diagnosed by an experienced rheumatologist, covering the period between January 1990 and December 2018, were reviewed. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, microscopic polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and renal-limited vasculitis were included. Potential predictors of mortality were demographic factors, clinical manifestations, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies status, diagnosis, disease categorization, the 2009 Five Factor Score (FFS), and treatment. Cox regression models were used to determine the risk factors for mortality. Univariable and multivariable analyses using a backward selection method were performed.
RESULTS: One hundred ninety-six patients were included; female-to-male ratio was 2:1. The median (interquartile range) age at diagnosis and follow-up were 60.0 (51.0-68.0) and 4.8 (1.3-11.6) years, respectively. One hundred forty-eight patients (75.5%) had microscopic polyangiitis, 37 (18.9%) granulomatosis with polyangiitis, 5 (2.6%) eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and 6 (3.0%) renal-limited vasculitis. Overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 83.4%, 68.2%, and 51.7%, respectively. Ocular involvement was protective (hazards ratio [HR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.74; p = 0.006), whereas renal (HR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.33-3.28; p = 0.001) and lung involvement (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.31-3.28; p = 0.002) and the 2009 FFSs were predictive of mortality (2009 FFS = 1: HR, 2.46; 95% CI, 1.50-4.04; p < 0.001; 2009 FFS = 2: HR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.54-6.10; p = 0.001; 2009 FFS = 3: HR, 13.29; 95% CI, 3.69-47.88; p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Ocular involvement was protective, whereas 2009 FFS ≥ 1 and renal and lung involvement were predictive factors of mortality in Peruvian AAV patients.