Most of the altmetric research in developing countries is descriptive and has not tested models exploring relationships among article-level factors. Therefore, there is a knowledge gap on this issue. The research question for this study was the following: Social dimension is the factor that activates the usage and citation of Open Access publications in Andean countries. DOIs of Andean countries publications in PLoS journals were downloaded using (n = 3,186) using rplos, an Application Programming Interface (API) developed for R: Bolivia (n = 121), Chile (n = 1,180), Colombia (n = 826), Ecuador (n = 266), Peru (n = 622), and Venezuela (n = 171). Data modeling was carried out with Partial Least Squares – Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The hypothesized structural model accounted for at least 41% of the explained variance of citations (R2 = 0.406). Among the two associated factors, the usage made the highest contribution (at least 0.639), while the social media showed a negative contribution. The application of PLS-SEM for modeling the information-seeking behavior, at the document level, highlights the positive evidence for the path social → usage → citation, but a negative and nonsignificant association between the social dimension and citation.