Background: Endovascular repair of complex aortic aneurysms (CAAs) can be performed in high-risk individuals, yet is still associated with significant morbidity, including spinal cord ischemia, cardiac complications, and death. This analysis was undertaken to better define the cardiac risk for CAA. Methods A prospective database of patients undergoing thoracoabdominal or juxtarenal aortic aneurysm repair with branched and fenestrated endografts was used to retrospectively determine the number of cardiac events, defined as myocardial infarction (MI), atrial fibrillation (AF), and ventricular arrhythmia (VA), that occurred ≤30 days of surgery. Postoperative serial troponin measurements were performed in 266 patients. Any additional available cardiac information, including preoperative echocardiography, physiologic stress tests, and history of cardiac disease, was obtained from medical records. The efficacy of preoperative stress testing and the association of various echo parameters were evaluated in the context of cardiac outcomes using univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Between August 2001 and December 2007, 395 patients underwent endovascular repair of a thoracoabdominal or juxtarenal aortic aneurysm. The incidence of AF, VA, and 30-day cardiac-related death was 9%, 3%, and 2%, respectively. Overall 30-day mortality was 6%. Univariable analysis showed the presence of mitral annulus calcification was associated with MI (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9-13.8; P = .07). Left atrium cavity area, ejection fraction, left ventricle mass, and left ventricular mass index were univariably associated with the presence of VA. Multivariable analysis showed only the left atrium cavity area was independently associated with VA (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5; P = .07). Stress test was done in 179 patients. Negative stress test results occurred in 152 (85%), of whom 9 (6%) sustained an MI during the 30-day perioperative course. MI occurred in 2 of the 27 patients (7%) who had a positive stress test result. Conclusions Endovascular repair of CAA can be performed in high-risk individuals but is associated with significant cardiac risk. It remains difficult to risk stratify patients using preoperative stress testing. Echo evaluation may help to identify patients who may be more likely to develop ventricular arrhythmias in the postoperative period and thus warrant closer monitoring. Postoperative troponin monitoring of all patients undergoing repair of CAA is warranted given the overall risk of MI.