Introduction: In the assessment of the second specialty training programs, the opinion of residents and graduates is essential to know the degree of satisfaction with the training received. The aimed was to assess the perceptions of Peruvian nephrology residents and graduates regarding their training. Material: A descriptive, cross-sectional study included all final-year residents and graduates of the nephrology program in 2022. An anonymous virtual survey assessed sociodemographic aspects, nephrology tutoring, clinical training, external rotations, research, the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and overall perception of their training. Results: With a response rate of 79.68%, 51 participants were evaluated. 76.48% of the participants rated their overall training during the residency as good. 58% agreed or strongly agreed that their tutor's performance was good. 66.6% agreed or strongly agreed that their theoretical training was good, with less certainty in genetic kidney diseases. 90% agreed or strongly agreed that their practical training was good, with less certainty in training in slow therapies, renal biopsies, acute peritoneal dialysis, and peritoneal dialysis catheter placement. 80.4% agreed or strongly agreed that the pandemic affected their training. The general perception had a positive correlation with the tutor's performance as good (r = 0.50; P < .001), the good perception of the hospital's research level (r = 0.47, P < .001), and the perception of good opportunities to get a job as a nephrologist (r = 0.67, P < .001). Conclusion: Although, in general, the perception is positive, there are aspects in which the training of Peruvian nephrology residents should be improved.