Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of thousands of manmade chemicals widely used in consumer products and industrial processes. Toxicological studies have suggested that exposure to PFASs may lead to several adverse effects, including infertility and cancer development. In light of their widespread use, the contamination of food products has created health concerns in sites directly influenced by industrial and anthropogenic activity. In the present contribution, the current knowledge of PFAS contamination was systematically reviewed in order to provide with the knowledge gaps and main sources of contamination, as well as critically evaluate estimated dietary intake and relative risk values of the consulted studies. Legacy PFASs remain the most abundant despite their production restrictions. Edible species from freshwater bodies exhibit higher PFAS concentrations than marine species, probably due to low hydrodynamics and dilution in lentic ecosystems. Studies in food products from multiple sources, including aquatic, livestock, and agricultural, agree that the proximity to factories and fluorochemical industries rendered significantly higher and potentially hazardous PFAS contamination. Short-chain PFAS are suggested as chemicals of emerging concern to food security. However, the environmental and toxicological implications of short-chain congeners are not fully understood and, thus, much research is needed in this sense.