Objective: This study determined the effect of pulmonary disease on outcomes after endovascular abdominal (EVAR) and endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (eTAAA) repair. Methods: A prospective study of high-risk patients undergoing EVAR and eTAAA repair between 1998 and 2009 was used to contrast clinical and endovascular outcomes between patients with (group 1) and without (group 2) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD patients were classified in accordance with the severity of their pulmonary disease using the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Survival, morphologic changes, and complications were assessed using Cox models and life-table analyses. The cause and timing of deaths between the groups was compared. Results: Of 905 patients analyzed, 289 (32%) had COPD (group 1) and the remaining patients (group 2) did not have COPD. EVAR was performed in 334 patients (37%), and fenestrated or branched devices were used in the remaining 571 (63%). Group 1 patients were younger (73.5 ± 6.7 vs 75.6 ± 8.2 years), had a better glomerular filtration rate (67.8 ± 25.8 vs 61.0 ± 23.3 mL/min/1.73 m2), had higher hematocrits (41.6 ± 5.0 vs 40.5 ± 4.6), and had more extensive aneurysms. Mean follow-up was 39.5 ± 30.9 months. Early (3% vs 3%) and late (2% vs 1%) aneurysm-related deaths were similar between the two groups. Survival in group 1 depended on the severity of disease. Survival in patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification I and II was similar to group 2. Those with classifications III and IV demonstrated lower survival rates. Relevant pulmonary function test variables included a lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory flow in the middle 50%, which were associated with decreased survival. Surrogate endovascular outcome analyses demonstrated that group 1 patients had fewer endoleaks (20% vs 25%; P =.05) and more rapid sac shrinkage rate (1.66 mm/y difference; P <.001). Conclusions: The perioperative risk of death between COPD patients and non-COPD patients is eliminated when endovascular techniques are used. Long-term survival in COPD patients is most strongly related to the severity of their disease, and forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced expiratory flow in the middle 50% are reasonable indicators of poor long-term outcomes. Morphologic changes after EVAR and eTAAA repair are more favorable in COPD patients, with a lower endoleak rate and faster sac shrinkage.