© 2018 Moyano D et al. Background: Leisure time is a human right and has to be considered part of any health promotion initiative aimed at children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between social vulnerability and the healthy use of leisure time in children and adolescents in urban contexts of Argentina, in 2012. Methods: A cross-sectional and analytical study using data from the Module on Activities of Girls, Boys and Adolescents of the Annual Urban Household Survey was carried out. In this survey, a self-administered instrument was applied to 25,915 individuals aged from 5 to 17. A Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) was developed. Association was estimated by multilevel logistic regression. Results: Children and adolescents use most of their leisure time to carry out school activities (90.1%) with art activities having the lowest percentage (21.8%). In the multilevel models on the relationship between a high SVI and non-performance of socialization activities, the OR was 1.99 (p =0.002, 95% CI: 1.28-3.12). The association between high SVI and non-use of ICT gave an OR of 14.17 (p < 0.001, 95% CI: 5.13-39.17), and between high SVI and non-use of internet, an OR of 21.89 (p < 0.001, 95% CI:7.50-63.88). Conclusions: A high SVI negatively impacts on some healthy activities of leisure time for children and adolescents in Argentina. The SVI could be a useful tool to guide health promotion initiatives in this population.