Using an immunocytochemical technique, we report for the first time the distribution of immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca diencephalon. Somatostatin-28 (1-12)-immunoreactive cell bodies were only observed in the hypothalamus (lateral hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus and ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus). However, immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the thalamus and hypothalamus. A high density of such fibers was observed in the central medial thalamic nucleus, laterodorsal thalamic nucleus, lateral habenular nucleus, mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, paraventricular thalamic nucleus, reuniens thalamic nucleus, rhomboid thalamic nucleus, subparafascicular thalamic nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, dorsal hypothalamic area, around the fornix, lateral hypothalamic area, lateral mammilary nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, supraoptic hypothalamic nucleus, and in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus. The widespread distribution of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the thalamus and hypothalamus of the alpaca suggests that the neuropeptide could be involved in many physiological actions.