We studied the distribution of neurokinin B-immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers in the cat brainstem using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique. The highest density of immunoreactive fibers was found in the motor trigeminal nucleus, the laminar and alaminar spinal trigeminal nuclei, the facial nucleus, the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, the locus coeruleus, the cuneiform nucleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the Kölliker-Fuse nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and in the inferior vestibular nucleus. Immunoreactive cell bodies containing neurokinin B were observed, for example, in the locus coeruleus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, the median division of the dorsal nucleus of the raphe, the lateral tegmental field, the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus, the internal division of the lateral reticular nucleus, the inferior central nucleus, the periaqueductal gray, the postpyramidal nucleus of the raphe, and in the medial nucleus of the solitary tract. This widespread distribution of neurokinin B in the cat brainstem suggests that the neuropeptide could be involved in many different physiological functions. In comparison with previous studies carried out in the rat brainstem on the distribution of neurokinin B, our results point to a more widespread distribution of this neuropeptide in the cat brainstem.