We report the distribution of immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers containing calcitonin gene-related peptide in the alpaca diencephalon. This study was carried out in alpacas that lived from birth to death at 0. m above sea level. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the thalamus and hypothalamus. A moderate density of these fibers was found in the zona incerta, the central medial, subparafascicular, reuniens and rhomboid thalamic nuclei, in the preoptic, anterior, lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, around the fornix, in the posterior, ventromedial and paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei and in the lateral mammillary nucleus. Cell bodies were only found in the hypothalamus: a high density in the paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei and a low density in the anterior, lateral and dorsal hypothalamic areas, around the fornix, and in the posterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. The widespread distribution of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the alpaca diencephalon suggests that it is involved in many physiological actions that must be investigated in-depth in the future, since alpacas lives from 0. m above sea level to altitudes of up to 5000. m altitude and hence the involvement of neuropeptides in special and unique regulatory physiological mechanisms could be suggested.