Water is one of the most valuable and scarce natural resources on Earth. Its availability and quality affect the economy and the health of populations. There are several highly water-dependent economic sectors. Extreme events such as El NiÃ±o, La NiÃ±a, or global warming affect water availability, income, employment, and labor productivity. More than 80% of the population of Latin America is concentrated in cities. However, the water supply is insufficient and of poor quality. 70% of wastewater has no treatment, making it difficult to re-use it and to complete the water cycle due to contamination. Water pollution occurs at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of water sources. Substances that pollute water are organic and inorganic. An underlying concern is the contamination of water by the presence of high levels of inorganic arsenic, lead and cadmium, and their negative consequences on human health such as cancer, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. Although some evidence of this problem and the efforts of wastewater treatment by corresponding institutions is observed in Colombia and Peru, there is still a long way to go to solve this problem in Latin America.