Plastic pollution is one of the major issues impacting on the marine environment. Plastic polymers are known to leach industrial chemicals and associated contaminants. In this review, we focused on assessing the global distribution and concentration of two polystyrene-derived contaminants, hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) and styrene oligomers (SOs), in marine sediments and seawater. Overall, most of the studies were carried out in Asia, North America, and Europe. Relatively high concentrations of these contaminants are generally attributed to the proximity of urban cities, plastic industries, polystyrene pollution, and aquaculture. Moreover, the concentrations in sediments are many times higher than in seawater. HBCDs were found to be a negligible risk to marine biota when compared to the ecotoxicological endpoints. However, realistic concentrations of SOs could compromise the wellbeing of certain species in highly polluted sites. The future perspectives and research were discussed.