Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) as a unique intervention on muscle strength, body composition, and immune-inflammatory markers in people living with HIV (PLHIV). Methods: The searches were conducted in seven databases and included published randomized clinical trials that assessed the effect of RT vs. no exercise on muscle strength, body composition, and immune-inflammatory markers in PLHIV until June 2021. Random effects meta-analyses of mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed, and the effect size was estimated by Hedges’ g test. Results: Seven RCTs were included (n= 258 PLHIV) and the study duration lasted between six and 24 weeks. In comparison to no exercise, RT improved muscle strength in bench press (MD 10.69 kg, 95%IC 3.44 to 17.93, p= 0.004, g =2.42) and squat (MD 22.66 kg, 95%IC 7.82 to 37.50, p= 0.003, g = 3.8) exercises, lean body mass (MD 2.96 kg, 95%CI 0.98 to 4.94, p= 0.003, g = 1.99), fat body mass(MD −2.67 kg; 95%CI −4.95 to −0.39, p= 0.02, g=-0.99), body fat percentage (MD −3.66%, 95%CI −6.04 to −1.29, p= 0.003, g=-1.99) and CD4+ cells count(MD 100.15 cells/mm3, 95%CI 12.21 to 188.08, p = 0.03, g = 2.91) in PLHIV. There was no effect of RT on IL-6 (MD −1.18 pg/mL, 95%CI −3.71 to 1.35, p = 0.36, g = 0.001) and TNF-α (MD −4.76 pg/mL, 95%CI −10.81 to 1.29, p = 0.12, g=-1.3) concentrations in PLHIV. Conclusions: RT as a unique intervention improves muscle strength, body composition and CD4+ count cells in PLHIV.