Purpose: This study analyzes the factors associated with eye care service utilization among Peruvians 50 years of age and older, measured as self-reporting of having undergone examination of visual acuity during the last 12 months. Methods: A secondary analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES, for its acronym in Spanish) database was carried out. We estimated the weighted proportion of adults 50 years of age and older that reported having undergone a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months and the frequency according to the variables of interest. Crude (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) of eye care service utilization were constructed using generalized linear models. Results: Approximately 28.8% of Peruvians 50 years of age and older underwent a visual acuity examination in the previous 12 months. Having a higher education (aPR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.33–2.40), health insurance such as EsSalud (aPR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28–1.87), a previous diagnosis of cataracts (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI: 1.67–2.09) and being part of the richest wealth quintile (aPR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.74–3.20) were associated with greater utilization of eye care services, while living in the jungle was associated with a lower likelihood of utilization of these services. Conclusion: The unequal distribution of health resources within the territory and socioeconomic gaps among the population could explain our findings. Further efforts are needed to fulfill the eye health needs of the Peruvian population.