Background:: To date, the factors associated with the presence of depression or depressive symptoms in the Peruvian population have not been described. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms in the Peruvian population and its associated factors. Methods:: A cross-sectional analytical study of secondary data from 2018 Demographic and Family Health Survey was conducted. The survey database includes 31,996 participants over 18 years of age. The dependent variable of the analysis was the presence of depression during the 14 days before the survey measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Factors associated with the presence of depression were estimated with a proportional odds logistic regression model. Results:: The overall prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was 6.4% (moderate and severe symptomatology in 3.9% [95% CI: 3.6–4.3] and 2.5% [95% CI: 2.2–2.7], respectively). Being a woman, belonging to the age groups of 45 to 64 years or 65 or older, living in the Andean region, and having high blood pressure or diabetes mellitus or some disability increased the probability of having clinically relevant depressive symptoms. Limitations:: The use of the PHQ-9 tool to assess depressive symptomatology limits the evaluation to a period of two weeks before the survey, requiring further study for diagnosis confirmation. Conclusion:: Six out of 100 Peruvians presented moderate to severe clinically relevant depressive symptoms in 2018. Strategies for depression should contemplate population subgroups, such as women and patients with chronic diseases and disabilities.