BACKGROUND: Postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans is a rare lung disease; there are limited reports in South America. CASE REPORT: We report 10 patients with this disease diagnosed at the Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño-Breña (Lima-Peru). The median age at diagnosis was 19 months and all patients had a history of severe acute respiratory infection. The most frequent symptoms were cough, respiratory distress, wheezing, and hypoxemia. The mosaic attenuation pattern was the most frequent on the tomography. All the patients had positive serology for adenovirus. The treatment received was methylprednisolone pulses, azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, and inhaled corticosteroids. No patient died during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: In previously healthy children with a history of severe acute respiratory infection and persistent bronchial obstructive symptoms, the diagnosis of postinfectious bronchiolitis obliterans should be considered. This is the first report in Peru with a therapeutic regimen adapted to our institution.