BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a neuroimmune disease, i.e. under constant research. The aim of this bibliometric study is to perform a bibliometric indicator analysis of the worldwide academic production of NMOSD during the period 2017-2021. METHODS: A bibliographic search was assessed in the Scopus database to identify NMOSD-related articles published during the period 2017-2021. Collected publications were exported and analyzed in Scival (Elsevier). Bibliographic data were described through absolute values and percentages in descriptive tables. VOSviewer was used to visualize collaborative networks. RESULTS: A total of 1920 documents were collected, and the highest percentage of these belonged to the area of neurology. Friedemann Paul was the author with the highest scientific production, but Brian Weinshenker had the greatest impact worldwide. Three of the institutions with the highest production were North American. Multiple sclerosis and related disorders were the journal with the highest production of publications. Most papers were published in Q1 or Q2 journals. CONCLUSION: NMOSD-related articles are mostly published in first and second quartile journals, which would reflect a high interest of the scientific community. Publications with international collaboration reported a higher impact. Although African and South American regions have considerable prevalence of this disease, they do not have institutions with high productivity developing research on this disease.