Overuse of antibiotics during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic could increase the selection of extensively resistant bacteria (XDR). However, it is unknown what impact they could have on the evolution of patients, particularly critically ill patients. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics and impact of ICU-acquired infections in patients with COVID-19. A retrospective cohort study was conducted, evaluating all patients with critical COVID-19 admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in Southern Peru from 28 March 2020 to 1 March 2021. Of the 124 patients evaluated, 50 (40.32%) developed a healthcare-associated infection (HAI), which occurred at a median of 8 days (IQR 6-17) after ICU admission. The proportion of patients with HAI that required ceftriaxone was significantly higher; the same was true for the use of dexamethasone. Forty bacteria isolations (80%) were classified as XDR to antibiotics, with the most common organisms being Acinetobacter baumannii (54%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%); 33% (41/124) died at the ICU during the follow-up. In the adjusted analysis, healthcare-associated infection was associated with an increased risk of mortality (aHR= 2.7; 95% CI: 1.33-5.60) and of developing acute renal failure (aRR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.42-6.72). The incidence of healthcare infection mainly by XDR pathogens is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and is associated with an increased risk of complications or death.