Animals have been considered the forerunners of human-manned space travel. From the beginning, engineers and veterinarians have worked together to design technologies that support biological and physiological needs in microgravity conditions through the design and implementation of habitats as a means of transport and animal health monitoring systems in space. Therefore, the Division of Space Veterinary Medicine developed an international study in order to present a literature review of the innovative synergistic connection between aerospace engineering and veterinary medicine in space research and exploration. The studied species were selected according to their historical antecedents and scientific contributions based on their phylogenetic characteristics from the largest to the smallest scale. The primates due to its similarity to humans, the dog due to its behavior and social character, the rodent as a pioneering model in biomedical sciences and a section of other animals of deep interest. Also, the article presents life support and environmental control systems, which are designed to sustain life in space. Finally, this is the first research conducted in Latin America which summarizes the historical data related to animals in space.