What Drives Abdominal Obesity in Peru? A Multilevel Analysis Approach Using a Nationally Representative Survey

Akram Hernández-Vásquez*, Kamyla M. Olazo-Cardenas, Fabriccio J. Visconti-Lopez, Antonio Barrenechea-Pulache

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Abdominal obesity (AO) is a serious public health threat due to its increasing prevalence and effect on the development of various non-communicable diseases. A multilevel analysis of the 2019 Demographic and Family Health Survey (ENDES in Spanish) using the Latin American Diabetes Association (ALAD in Spanish) cut-off points was carried out to evaluate the individual and contextual factors associated with AO in Peru. A total of 30,585 individuals 18 years and older were included in the analysis. The prevalence of AO among Peruvians in 2019 was 56.5%. Individuals of older age (aOR 4.64; 95% CI: 3.95–5.45), women (aOR 2.74; 95% CI: 2.33–3.23), individuals with a higher wealth index (aOR 2.81; 95% CI: 2.40–3.30) and having only secondary education (aOR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.21–1.75) showed increased odds of presenting AO compared to their peers. At a contextual level, only the Human Development Index (aOR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.17–2.16) was associated with the development of AO. A high Human Development Index is the contextual factor most associated with AO. It is necessary to formulate and implement new public health policies focused on these associated factors in order to reduce the prevalence of OA and prevent the excessive burden of associated noncommunicable diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10333
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number16
StatePublished - Aug 2022


  • Peru
  • abdominal obesity
  • epidemiology
  • health surveys
  • multilevel analysis


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