Validation of Picture Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test for Illiteracy in Lima, Peru

Rosa Montesinos, Jose F. Parodi, Monica M. Diaz, Eder Herrera-Perez, Elizabeth Valeriano-Lorenzo, Ambar Soto, Carolina Delgado, Andrea Slachevsky, Nilton Custodio*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Dementia in Latin America is a crucial public health problem. Identifying brief cognitive screening (BCS) tools for the primary care setting is crucial, particularly for illiterate individuals. We evaluated tool performance characteristics and validated the free and total recall sections of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test-Picture version (FCSRT-Picture) to discriminate between 63 patients with early Alzheimer’s disease dementia (ADD), 60 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 64 cognitively healthy Peruvian individuals with illiteracy from an urban area. Clinical, functional, and cognitive assessments were performed. FCSRT-Picture performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The mean ± standard deviation scores were 7.7 ± 1.0 in ADD, 11.8 ± 1.6 in aMCI, and 29.5 ± 1.8 in controls. The FCSRT-Picture had better performance characteristics for distinguishing controls from aMCI compared with several other BCS tools, but similar characteristics between controls and early ADD. The FCSRT-Picture is a reliable BCS tool for illiteracy in Peru.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Alzheimer´s disease
  • dementia
  • educational level
  • free and cued selective reminding test
  • illiteracy
  • Latin America
  • Peru
  • Cues
  • Humans
  • Cognitive Dysfunction
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Literacy
  • Neuropsychological Tests


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