Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the TPACK-21 questionnaire in teachers’ in-service

Ana Cecilia Alemán-Saravia, Angel Deroncele-Acosta*, Herbert Robles-Mori

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Scientific evidence shows that the integration of technology, pedagogy and content is a factor in the success of teaching performance, and it is essential to have tools that provide in-depth knowledge of this process. However, almost all the questionnaires on this integration are in English in Scopus and WOS, therefore, validated instruments in Spanish aligned to the culture of the Latin American educational ecosystem are required. From this reality, the study aims at the translation, cultural adaptation, and validation of Valtonen’s Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge for 21st Century Skills Questionnaire (TPACK-21). The research followed an essentially epistemic methodological route. The translated and adapted questionnaire was applied to 221 teachers of Regular Basic Education in Lima, Peru. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the 6 dimensions of the model and showed high reliability. It is recommended to continue with research that evaluates the TPACK-21 in different contexts and educational levels, especially in Latin America. It is also suggested to expand qualitative studies for a better understanding of the underlying aspects, as well as the construction of meanings and meanings of teachers as a basis for the creation of continuing education programs.

Translated title of the contributionTraducción, adaptación cultural y validación del cuestionario TPACK-21 en docentes en servicio
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-469
Number of pages17
JournalRevista de Ciencias Sociales
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2023


  • 21st century skills
  • Cuestionario TPACK
  • TPACK questionnaire
  • Technology of the information and communication
  • Tecnologías de la información y la comunicación
  • docentes en servicio
  • habilidades del Siglo XXI
  • instrument validation
  • teachers’ in service
  • validación de instrumentos


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