System Biology Approach to Identify the Hub Genes and Pathways Associated with Human H5N1 Infection

Raushan Kumar Chaudhary, Ananthesh L, Prakash Patil, Uday Venkat Mateti*, Sanjit Sah, Aroop Mohanty, Rama S. Rath, Bijaya Kumar Padhi, Sumira Malik, Kadhim Hussein Jassim, Moustafa A. Al-Shammari, Yasir Waheed, Prakasini Satapathy, Joshuan J. Barboza*, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Ranjit Sah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Introduction: H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus that can infect humans and has an estimated fatality rate of 53%. As shown by the current situation of the COVID-19 pandemic, emerging and re-emerging viruses such as H5N1 have the potential to cause another pandemic. Thus, this study outlined the hub genes and pathways associated with H5N1 infection in humans. Methods: The genes associated with H5N1 infection in humans were retrieved from the NCBI Gene database using “H5N1 virus infection” as the keyword. The genes obtained were investigated for protein–protein interaction (PPI) using STRING version 11.5 and studied for functional enrichment analysis using DAVID 2021. Further, the PPI network was visualised and analysed using Cytoscape 3.7.2, and the hub genes were obtained using the local topological analysis method of the cytoHubba plugin. Results: A total of 39 genes associated with H5N1 infection in humans significantly interacted with each other, forming a PPI network with 38 nodes and 149 edges modulating 74 KEGG pathways, 76 biological processes, 13 cellular components, and 22 molecular functions. Further, the PPI network analysis revealed that 33 nodes interacted, forming 1056 shortest paths at 0.282 network density, along with a 1.947 characteristic path length. The local topological analysis predicted IFNA1, IRF3, CXCL8, CXCL10, IFNB1, and CHUK as the critical hub genes in human H5N1 infection. Conclusion: The hub genes associated with the H5N1 infection and their pathways could serve as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for H5N1 infection among humans.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1269
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023


  • H5N1 virus
  • KEGG pathways
  • avian influenza
  • gene ontology
  • hub genes


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