Oenacarpus mapora H. Karst is an Amazon palm tree widely used by the Ashaninka population of Peru. Its fruits have a high economic and nutraceutical potential, from which the pulp and oil can be extracted. The phenological behavior of palm tree populations is still scarce for the Amazonian forests of South America. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive phenology and biometric parameters of the fruit of O. mapora H. Karst in the Madre de Dios Region, located in the Southeast of Peru. 216 individuals of O. mapora H. Karst were directly monitored monthly for a period of 8 months between June 2019 and January 2020. The phenological monitoring was carried out in the Biological Station “Los Amigos”, located in the low Amazon rainforest of the Madre de Dios Region, Peru (12°34'06.9"-12°50'10.12" S, 70°05'56.5"-70°40'26" W), ranging from 200-300 masl. For each individual, the following phenophases were evaluated: flower bud, open flower, immature fruit and mature fruit. 223 fruits of O. mapora H. Karst were selected to evaluate their biometric characteristics, each bunch produced between 500 and 700 fruits. For each fruit, its length, width and weight were recorded. Correlation between climatic (average temperature and rainfall) and phenological (flowering and fruiting) variables was evaluated using Pearson method. During the study, rainfall between 85-551 mm (212 mm on average) was observed, with a maximum peak in December. The average temperature ranged between 26-33 °C, with an average of 28.7 °C. A higher occurrence of flower buds (10.2%) was observed in July, while open flowers were found between July and December, with a maximum peak between August and September (43.3-45.6%) during the dry season (May to October). A greater quantity of immature fruits was observed from July to December (14-21.9%), while the greatest quantity of mature fruits was found between November to January (9-11.4%) during the rainy season (November to April). Average temperature showed a negative correlation with flower buds and open flowers (r = -0.700 and r = -0.650, respectively, p<0.01), while rainfall showed a significant correlation with the presence of ripe fruits (r = 0.690, p<0.01). The fruits had a length, width and weight of 18.9 ± 1.0 mm, 17.8 ± 0.9 mm and 3.9 ± 0.5 g, respectively. Our findings show that flowering was not influenced by average temperature, while fruiting was strongly associated with higher rainfall during the rainy season.
|Original language||Spanish (Peru)|
|State||Published - Jul 2021|