Racial/ethnic disparities in the cause of death among patients with prostate cancer in the United States from 1995 to 2019: a population-based retrospective cohort study

Hongmei Zeng*, Mengyuan Xu, Yingwei Xie, Sergiusz Nawrocki, Jakub Morze, Xianhui Ran, Tianhao Shan, Changfa Xia, Yixin Wang, Lingeng Lu, Xue Qin Yu, Catarina Machado Azeredo, John S. Ji, Xiaomei Yuan, Katherine Curi-Quinto, Yuexin Liu, Bingsheng Liu, Tao Wang, Hao Ping*, Edward L. Giovannucci

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer are reported in the United States (US). However, long-term trends and contributors of racial/ethnic disparities in all-cause and cause-specific death among patients with prostate cancer remain unclear. We analysed the trends and contributors of racial/ethnic disparities in prostate cancer survivors according to the cause of death in the US over 25 years. Methods: In this retrospective, population-based longitudinal cohort study, we identified patients diagnosed with first primary prostate cancer between 1995 and 2019, with follow-up until Dec 31, 2019, using population-based cancer registries’ data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. We calculated the cumulative incidence of death for each racial/ethnic group (Black, white, Hispanic, Asian or Pacific Islander [API], and American Indian or Alaska Native [AI/AN] people), by diagnostic period and cause of death. We quantified absolute disparities using rate changes for the 5-year cumulative incidence of death between racial/ethnic groups and diagnostic periods. We estimated relative (Hazard ratios [HR]) racial/ethnic disparities and the percentage of potential factors contributed to racial/ethnic disparities using Cox regression models. Findings: Despite a decreasing trend in the cumulative risk of death across five racial/ethnic groups, AI/AN and Black patients consistently had the highest rate of death between 1995 and 2019 with an adjusted HR of 1.48 (1.40–1.58) and 1.40 (1.38–1.42) respectively. The disparities in all-cause mortality between AI/AN and white patients increased over time, with adjusted HR 1.32 (1.17–1.49) in 1995–1999 and 1.95 (1.53–2.49) in 2015–2019. Adjustment of stage at diagnosis, initial treatment, tumor grade, and household income explained 33% and 24% of the AI/AN-white and Black-white disparities in all-cause death among patients with prostate cancer. Interpretation: The enduring racial/ethnic disparities in patients with prostate cancer, call for new interventions to eliminate health disparities. Our study provides important evidence and ways to address racial/ethnic inequality. Funding: National Key R&D Program of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals Clinical Medicine Development of Special Funding Support, the Open Research Fund from Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Big Data-Based Precision Medicine, Key Projects of Philosophy and Social Sciences Research, Ministry of Education of China.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102138
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Cause-specific death
  • Prostate cancer
  • Racial/ethnic disparities
  • The United States


Dive into the research topics of 'Racial/ethnic disparities in the cause of death among patients with prostate cancer in the United States from 1995 to 2019: a population-based retrospective cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this