Pedestrian moral disengagement scale towards sustainable urban planning

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This study aimed to address Goal 3.5: Reduce deaths and injuries caused by traffic accidents of the United Nations SDG 3: Good Health and Well-Being (United Nations, 2023) by examining the conduct of Peruvian pedestrians and its involvement in traffic accidents. We considered the Lima Metropolitan Area as the target population because it represents the third largest part of Peru, with 8,894,412 inhabitants (Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica, 2015). We developed and validated a pedestrian moral disengagement scale that provides relevant information about the justifications concerned when pedestrians commit transport infractions, which those in charge of transport management can use to make decisions regarding the design and planning of the infrastructure. The study was conducted in two phases. First, a questionnaire was developed with a 100–100-pedestrian sample in a two-stage brainstorming process validated by transport academic experts and psychologists. Second, a clustered instance of two stages of 405 pedestrians from Metropolitan Lima was analysed by applying exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results showed that the data collected were not parametric; Spearman's correlation index validated the correlation between the items on the scale, and polychoric correlational analysis confirmed an underlying metrical variable; and the model exhibited a p-value of less than 0.001, a chi-square of 173 with 59 degrees of freedom, a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.0692, a comparative fit index (CFI) of o.937, a Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) of 0.917, and a standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) of 0.0457. The main conclusion was that the adjustment of the model was sufficient, considering the results obtained within the theoretical model proposed by Albert Bandura (1986) and within the phases of reliability and validation confirming the representation of the eight mechanisms of pedestrian moral disengagement in Metropolitan Lima through the 13 identified items. Furthermore, a chi-square analysis found that residents and commuters in the El Agustino district enjoyed holding on to moving vehicles while skating or cycling (item P1.10), with an asymptotic significance of 0.018. Similarly, residents and travellers in the Cieneguilla district were likely to ignore traffic lights and police instructions (item P1.13), with an asymptotic significance of 0.009. By comprehensively analysing district variables and considering each district's unique challenges and needs, urban planners and those in charge of transport management can develop more effective solutions that improve pedestrian safety, accessibility, and urban mobility in developing countries.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100936
JournalTransportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives
StatePublished - Nov 2023


  • Moral disengagement
  • Pedestrian
  • Sustainability
  • Transport management
  • Urban planning


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