Mental Health in COVID-2019 Survivors from a General Hospital in Peru: Sociodemographic, Clinical, and Inflammatory Variable Associations

Jeff Huarcaya-Victoria*, Jessica Barreto, Lucia Aire, Angela Podestá, Mónica Caqui, Rosa Guija-Igreda, Claudia Castillo, Christoper A. Alarcon-Ruiz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The current coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic constitutes a significant public health problem worldwide, as well as mental health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the mental health of COVID-19 survivors, considering their sociodemographic, clinical, and immune variables. A cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted on 318 COVID-19 survivors from one hospital in Peru. Through telephone interviews, evaluation of the presence of depressive symptoms using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, anxiety symptoms through the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, somatic symptoms through Patient Health Questionnaire-15, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms through Impact of Event Scale-Revised was carried out. Poisson regression analyses were performed with their adjusted variances to calculate the prevalence ratio (PR) with their 95% confidence interval. All regression models were adjusted (PRa) for follow-up time. A significant proportion of patients have depressive (30.9%), anxious (31.1%), somatic (35.2%), and PTSD (29.5%) symptoms. The variables associated with a higher frequency of clinically relevant mental symptoms were female sex, self-perception of greater COVID-19 severity, presence of persistent COVID-19 symptoms, loss of a family member due to COVID-19, and prior psychiatric diagnosis or treatment. In addition, the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was significantly higher in patients with clinically relevant symptoms of depression. COVID-19 survivors showed a high prevalence of negative mental symptoms. Our findings help to identify patients who are vulnerable and require psychiatric care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


  • Anxiety
  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Inflammation
  • Peru
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Somatic symptoms


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