Background: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is characterized by excessive activation of macrophages and lym-phocytes, leading to multiorgan dysfunction. As the initial manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), MAS is rare in children. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it is vital to identify the MAS as it shares similar characteristics with the mul-tisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Case report: We report the case of an 11-year-old male adolescent with symptoms of MIS-C. Although with negative results of RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and serolo-gy for SARS-CoV-2, contact with a positive COVID-19 relative was reported. When admitted to a referral hospital center, the patient received standard treatment for MIS-C. Although the same scheme was given on three occasions, the patient showed no response to initial therapy. Thus, the patient was classified as a refractory case. When the study was extended to other differential diagnoses, we found MAS associated with SLE. Therefore, the patient was treated with etoposide, cyclosporine, dexamethasone, and methotrexate and showed a good clinical response. Conclusions: MAS associated with SLE is rare in the pediatric population. MAS shares inflammatory markers with the MIS-C and is often confused with rheumatologic, infec-tious, and neoplastic entities. Reporting this case is important to identify differential diagnoses in patients presenting as MIS-C and decide on timely treatment, as it could be harmful or even fatal if a definitive diagnosis is not obtained on time.
|Translated title of the contribution||Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated with macrophage activation syndrome mimicking COVID-19 multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Boletin Medico del Hospital Infantil de Mexico|
|State||Published - 1 Nov 2021|