Likely Electromagnetic Foundations of Gender Inequality

Federico R. León*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Cross-country variation of gender inequality is attributed to cultural, evolutionary, epidemiological, social, and psychological variables, but recent research has shown decreased inequality with proximity to the poles, suggesting that such variables may convey effects of electromagnetics and climate. This study evaluated two mediation models across 98 countries. In the successful model, ultraviolet radiation impaired cognitive performance with the final result of increasing gender inequality; cross-cultural research should pay attention to this three-part connection and specify the process in greater detail. Additionally, gender inequality emerged directly related to ultraviolet radiation with positive sign, suggesting actions of testosterone; field and laboratory studies that address the specific mediating roles of sex hormones are needed. Pathogen prevalence and the ACP1*B allele played complementary roles that are consistent with the literature. The model was robust to post-1500 European ancestry and the radiation – cognitive performance – gender inequality nexus, but not other paths, were reliable across continents.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-263
Number of pages25
JournalCross-Cultural Research
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - 2022


  • ACP1*B allele
  • UV radiation
  • cognitive performance
  • gender inequality
  • pathogen prevalence


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