Inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Peru: An ecological study

Ali Al-kassab-Córdova, Carolina Mendez-Guerra, Claudia Silva-Perez, Percy Herrera-Añazco, Vicente A. Benites-Zapata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: To assess the correlation between COVID-19 vaccination coverage and the Human Development Index (HDI) at the provincial level in Peru. Study design: Ecological study. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional ecological study based on secondary data analysis. Coverages of the first, second, and third doses of the vaccine against COVID-19 and the HDI were evaluated. The magnitude of the correlations was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients with their corresponding bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Scatter plots were also constructed. Results: A total of 196 provinces were included. There was a moderate correlation between the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine and the HDI (r = 0.3807 [95% CI 0.2585–0.5030], p < 0.0001). The same direction was found for the second (r = 0.4064 [95% CI 0.2853–0.5276], p < 0.0001) and third dose (r = 0.4435 [95% CI 0.3201–0.5669], p < 0.0001). Conclusions: A positive correlation was found between COVID-19 vaccination coverage and the HDI, suggesting the presence of inequalities in access to vaccines. Individualised strategies are needed in lower HDI regions to tackle inequalities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100384
JournalPublic Health in Practice
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Peru
  • Socioeconomic inequalities
  • Vaccination


Dive into the research topics of 'Inequalities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage in Peru: An ecological study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this