Incorporation of simulation features to improve higher order thinking skills

Yoshimasa Kageyama*, Sandra Zubieta Zamudio, Michele Barton Carmen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


More and more educators are adopting simulations for teaching students and training individuals.A more comprehensive model proposing key simulation features is needed for simulation designers and educators. The aim of the study is to propose a theoretical model for examining simulation features in digital-based learning and the impact of simulation features on higher-order thinking. Data was collected from 301 business management students from two universities. Study One focused on a university in the U.S. (North America) and Study Two focused on a university in Peru (South America). The findings; confirm that the three key components comprising simulation features are: simulation design, simulation; interactivity, and simulation realism. The results also support the operationalization and conceptualization of simulation features as a multi-factor, higher-order construct. Lastly, simulation features have an impact on higher order thinking skills, including critical thinking and reflective thinking. Educators and content developers should ensure they consider the specific simulation features discussed in this research when designing and selecting simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100628
JournalInternational Journal of Management Education
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Distance education and online learning
  • Formative model
  • Higher education
  • Higher order thinking
  • Simulation features


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