Evaluation of occurrence of organic, inorganic, and microbial contaminants in bottled drinking water and comparison with international guidelines: a worldwide review

Sudabeh Pourfadakari, Sina Dobaradaran, Gabriel E. De-la-Torre, Azam Mohammadi, Reza Saeedi, Jorg Spitz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of inorganic and organic substances as well as microbial contaminants in bottled drinking water on a global scale. The findings were compared to WHO guidelines, EPA standards, European Union (EU) directive, and standards drafted by International Bottled Water Association (IBWA). Our review showed that 46% of studies focused on the organic contaminants, 25% on physicochemical parameters, 12% on trace elements, 7% on the microbial quality, and 10% on microplastics (MPs) and radionuclides elements. Overall, from the 54 studies focusing on organic contaminants (OCs) compounds, 11% of studies had higher OCs concentrations than the standard permissible limit. According to the obtained results from this review, several OCs, inorganic contaminants (IOCs), including CHCl3, CHBrCl2, DEHP, benzene, styrene, Ba, As, Hg, pb, Ag, F, NO3, and SO4 in bottled drinking water of some countries were higher than the international guidelines values that may cause risks for human health in a long period of time. Furthermore, some problematic contaminants with known or unknown health effects such as EDCs, DBP, AA, MPs, and some radionuclides (40K and 222Rn) lack maximum permissible values in bottled drinking water as stipulated by international guidelines. The risk index (HI) for OCs and IOCs (CHBrCl2, Ba, As, and Hg) was higher than 1 in adults and children, and the value of HI for CHCl3 in children was more than 1. Thus, further studies are required to have a better understanding of all contaminants levels in bottled drinking water.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bottled drinking water
  • Microbial quality
  • Microplastic
  • Radionuclides
  • Risk assessments

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