Epidemiology of neurocognitive disorders in adults from urban-marginalized areas: a door-to-door population-based study in Puente Piedra, Lima, Peru

Eder Herrera-Perez, Nilton Custodio, Monica Diaz, Rosa Montesinos, Alexandra Chang, Mirla Villafuerte, Serggio Lanata

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In Latin America (LA), the prevalence of dementia is expected to triple to 150 million people by 2050. The 2020 Lancet Commission report identified several modifiable dementia risk factors, yet few social and environmental factors, most relevant to vulnerable regions of LA, were highlighted in this report. We sought to assess the epidemiology of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) in Puente Piedra, one of the most socially and economically vulnerable districts of Lima, the capital of Peru. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional door-to-door observational study that used two-stage household sampling. One young adult (30–59 years) and one older adult (>60 years) per household were enrolled. We collected demographic, clinical, and neurocognitive data. Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination (young adults) and the RUDAS-PE (older adults) were used, classifying participants as cognitively normal, possible mild NCD, or possible major NCD. Results: We enrolled 247 participants (median age 46 years; 67% female). One-fourth had not completed secondary school and more than 50% completed only secondary school. Most participants were housewives (46%) and 21% did not have health insurance. The overall prevalence of possible NCD was 30% (25.6 and 41.8% among younger adults and older adults, respectively). Among younger adults, those ages 55–59 years more frequently had NCD (70%) compared to younger age ranges. Among older adults, only 3 subjects (4.5%) had major NCD. Conclusion: We found a high frequency of possible NCDs in a socially and economically vulnerable community in Lima, Peru, with younger adults showing levels of NCD higher than expected. Our findings support the need for health systems to incorporate cognitive screenings programs for NCD in younger ages. Future research on NCD would include younger populations, particularly in vulnerable communities.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1228008
Pages (from-to)1228008
JournalFrontiers in Public Health
StatePublished - 2023


  • cognitive impairment
  • dementia
  • door-to-door study
  • major neurocognitive disorder
  • mild cognitive impairment
  • mild neurocognitive disorder
  • neuroepidemiology
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Male
  • Young Adult
  • Female
  • Aged
  • Peru/epidemiology
  • Piedra
  • Neurocognitive Disorders/epidemiology
  • Dementia


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