Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of antituberculosis therapy on pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with genital tuberculosis. Design Systematic review. Data sources We searched in PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL and EMBASE up to 15 January 2023. Additionally, we manually search the reference lists of included studies. Eligibility criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs (non-RCT) and cohort studies that evaluated the effects of antituberculosis treatment on pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with genital tuberculosis compared with not receiving antituberculosis treatment or receiving the treatment for a shorter period. Data extraction and synthesis Two independent reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane Risk of Bias 1.0 and Risk Of Bias In Non-randomised Studies tools for risk of bias assessment and meta-analysis was not performed. We used Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. Results Two RCTs and one non-RCT were included. The antituberculosis regimens were based on isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 6-12 months. In women without structural damage, very low certainty of evidence from one RCT showed that the antituberculosis treatment may have little to no effect on pregnancy, full-term pregnancy, abortion or intrauterine death and ectopic pregnancy, but the evidence is very uncertain. In women with structural damage, very low certainty of evidence from one non-RCT showed that the antituberculosis treatment may reduce the pregnancy rate (297 fewer per 1000, 95% CI -416 to -101), but the evidence is very uncertain. In addition, very low certainty of evidence from one RCT compared a 9-month vs 6-month antituberculosis treatment regimen showed similar effects between the schemes, but the evidence is very uncertain. Two RCTs reported that no adverse events of antituberculosis treatment were noted or were similar in both groups. Conclusion The effect of antituberculosis treatment on pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with genital tuberculosis is very uncertain. PROSPERO registration number CRD42022273145.
- Male infertility
- Reproductive medicine
- Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use
- Pregnancy Outcome
- Infertility, Female/drug therapy