DEEPAGÉ: Answering Questions in Portuguese About the Brazilian Environment

Flávio Nakasato Cação, Marcos Menon José, André Seidel Oliveira, Stefano Spindola, Anna Helena Reali Costa, Fabio Gagliardi Cozman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review


The challenge of climate change and biome conservation is one of the most pressing issues of our time—particularly in Brazil, where key environmental reserves are located. Given the availability of large textual databases on ecological themes, it is natural to resort to question answering (QA) systems to increase social awareness and understanding about these topics. In this work, we introduce multiple QA systems that combine in novel ways the BM25 algorithm, a sparse retrieval technique, with PTT5, a pre-trained state-of-the-art language model. Our QA systems focus on the Portuguese language, thus offering resources not found elsewhere in the literature. As training data, we collected questions from open-domain datasets, as well as content from the Portuguese Wikipedia and news from the press. We thus contribute with innovative architectures and novel applications, attaining an F1-score of 36.2 with our best model.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIntelligent Systems - 10th Brazilian Conference, BRACIS 2021, Proceedings, Part 2
EditorsAndré Britto, Karina Valdivia Delgado
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages15
ISBN (Print)9783030916985
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event10th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems, BRACIS 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 29 Nov 20213 Dec 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13074 LNAI
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Conference10th Brazilian Conference on Intelligent Systems, BRACIS 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Environment in Brazil
  • Natural language processing in Portuguese
  • Question answering


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