Association between Altitude and the Framingham Risk Score: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Peruvian Adult Population

Akram Hernández-Vásquez*, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Manuel Chacón-Diaz

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


To determine the association between altitude and the Framingham risk score in the Peruvian population, we performed a cross-sectional analytical study of data collected by the 2017–2018 Food and Nutrition Surveillance by Life Stages survey. The outcome of this study was the Framingham 10-year cardiovascular disease event risk prediction, which is composed of six modifiable and non-modifiable coronary risk factors. A generalized linear model (GLM) of the gamma family and log link function was used to report the crude and adjusted β coefficients. Several sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the association of interest. Data from a total of 833 surveyed participants were included. After adjusting for educational level, poverty level, alcohol consumption, physical activity level, the presence of any limitation, obesity, and area of residence, it was observed that altitude ≥ 2500 m above sea level (β = −0.42 [95% CI: −0.69 to −0.16]) was negatively and significantly associated with a decrease in the Framingham 10-year risk score. High altitude was significantly and negatively associated with Framingham 10-year risk scores. Our results will allow prevention strategies considering modifiable risk factors to avoid the development of cardiovascular diseases, especially in people living at low altitudes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3838
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number7
StatePublished - 24 Mar 2022


  • Altitude
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Cardiovascular risk factors
  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Peru


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