Andexanet alfa versus PCC products for factor Xa inhibitor bleeding: A systematic review with meta-analysis

C. Michael White*, Kimberly Snow Caroti, Youssef Bessada, Adrian V. Hernandez, William L. Baker, Paul P. Dobesh, Heleen van Haalen, Kirsty Rhodes, Craig I. Coleman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Previous meta-analyses assessed andexanet alfa (AA) or prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) products for the treatment of Factor Xa inhibitor (FXaI)-associated major bleeding. However, they did not include recent studies or assess the impact of the risk of bias. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis on the effectiveness of AA versus PCC products for FXaI-associated major bleeding, inclusive of the studies' risk of bias. PubMed and Embase were searched for comparative studies assessing major bleeding in patients using FXaI who received AA or PCC. We used the Methodological Index for NOn-Randomized Studies (MINORS) checklist and one question from the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal of Case Series tool to assess the risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to provide a pooled estimate for the effect of AA versus PCC products on hemostatic efficacy, in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality, and thrombotic events. Low–moderate risk of bias studies were meta-analyzed separately, as well as combined with high risk of bias studies. Eighteen comparative evaluations of AA versus PCC were identified. Twenty-eight percent of the studies (n = 5) had low–moderate risk and 72% (n = 13) had a high risk of bias. Studies with low–moderate risk of bias suggested improvements in hemostatic efficacy [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.72 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.15–6.44); one study], lower in-hospital mortality [OR 0.48 (95% CI: 0.38–0.61); three studies], and reduced 30-day mortality [OR 0.49 (95% CI: 0.30–0.80); two studies] when AA was used versus PCC products. When studies were included regardless of the risk of bias, pooled effects showed improvements in hemostatic efficacy [OR 1.36 (95% CI: 1.01–1.84); 12 studies] and reductions in 30-day mortality [OR 0.53 (95% CI: 0.37–0.76); six studies] for AA versus PCC. The difference in thrombotic events with AA versus PCC was not statistically significant in the low–moderate, high, or combined risk of bias groups. The evidence from low–moderate quality real-world studies suggests that AA is superior to PCC in enhancing hemostatic efficacy and reducing in-hospital and 30-day mortality. When studies are assessed regardless of the risk of bias, the pooled hemostatic efficacy and 30-day mortality risk remain significantly better with AA versus PCC.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPharmacotherapy
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Keywords

  • andexanet alpha
  • factor Xa inhibitor
  • major bleeding
  • prothrombin complex concentrate

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Andexanet alfa versus PCC products for factor Xa inhibitor bleeding: A systematic review with meta-analysis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this