Addressing the resurgence of global monkeypox (Mpox) through advanced drug delivery platforms

Sourav Mohanto, Md Faiyazuddin, Amol Dilip Gholap, Darshan JC, Adrija Bhunia, Kannan Subbaram, Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed, Sagnik Nag, Mohammad Shabib Akhtar, D. Katterine Bonilla-Aldana, Sanjit Sah, Sumira Malik, Zahraa Haleem Al-qaim, Joshuan J. Barboza, Ranjit Sah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

Monkeypox (Mpox) is a transmissible infection induced by the Monkeypox virus (a double-stranded DNA virus), recognised under the family orthopoxvirus genus. Monkeypox, like endemic diseases, is a substantial concern worldwide; thus, comprehending the pathogenesis and mutagenesis of amino acids is indispensable to combat the infection. According to the World Health Organization's report, about 89 thousand cases with 160 mortalities have been reported from 114 countries worldwide. The conventional orthopoxvirus vaccines developed on live attenuated viruses exempted any clinical validation from combating monkeypox due to inadequate immunogenicity, toxicity, instability, and multiple doses. Therefore, novel drug delivery systems come into the conception with high biological and mechanical characteristics to address the resurgence of Global Monkeypox. The edges of metallic biomaterials, novel molecules, and vaccine development in targeted therapy increase the modulation of the immune response and blockage of host-virus interaction, with enhanced stability for the antigens. Thus, this review strives to comprehend the viral cell pathogenesis concerning amino acid mutagenesis and current epidemiological standards of the Monkeypox disease across the globe. Furthermore, the review also recapitulates the various clinical challenges, current therapies, and progressive nanomedicine utilisation in the Monkeypox outbreak reinforced by various clinical trial reports. The contemporary challenges of novel drug delivery systems in Monkeypox treatment cannot be overlooked, and thus, authors have outlined the future strategies to develop successful nanomedicine to combat monkeypox. Future pandemics are inevitable but can be satisfactorily handled if we comprehend the crises, innovate, and develop cutting-edge technologies, especially by delving into frontiers like nanotechnology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102636
JournalTravel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Volume56
DOIs
StatePublished - 1 Nov 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Clinical trials
  • Infectious disease
  • Monkeypox
  • Nanomedicine
  • Treatment
  • Vaccine

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